Utilized Presentation – Follow – Manufacturing (PPP) As an Strategy in Educating Grammar

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“I by no means train my pupils, I solely try to supply the circumstances through which they will be taught.”

• Albert Einstein

There are a number of worldwide instructive approaches launched by professional language proponents for language instructing. Presentation- Follow -Manufacturing (PPP) is one among the many widely-used strategies for grammar directions. It’s a conventional strategy however its employment should not be taken as a right; cautious planning is required for its expediency. Its rudiments direct lecturers to allow studying by stimulating learners’ ascending pondering ranges by way of classes’ well- outlined targets whereas they’re entrenched in its three levels.

In PPP, instructing will be efficient when the goal language is managed. Due to this fact, limiting language expressions as topic issues akin to “is, are, am; there may be and there are; this, these, that and people; can and may’t; can and will; could and may; correct nouns and customary nouns, rely and non-count nouns, energetic and passive modes, optimistic and destructive statements, destructive and optimistic questions with sure -no responses, zero conditional versus first conditionals,” amongst quite a few classes based mostly from the language program’s sequenced define being managed. At this juncture, learners have to be outlined. Defining learners is lecturers’ consciousness of scholars’ comprehension ranges, age, nationality and tradition the place the creation of duties designs and examples to facilitate efficient instructing are based upon.

Educating grammar buildings by way of the PPP will be extra operative once we affiliate instructive language expressions to college students’ real-world atmosphere. By linking pure contexts, their pursuits are being drawn or stimulated by prior data and experiences. Issues akin to their hobbies, movies they largely watch, travels in different international locations, favourite actors from world wide, favourite video games, happiest and scariest desires, historic occasions they’re aware about different international locations, people and nation English songs that they take heed to, and extra will be steered as thematic backgrounds for college students are typically responsive at school actions when conditions they’re intently linked to are manipulated. Additionally, offering these sorts of frameworks cut back college students’ studying passivity which is especially resulting from lack of curiosity or absence of information.

PPP’s fundamentals are explicated right here in two separate methods. (A) One is thru utilizing completely different language targets in every stage to clarify its underlying rudiments, and (B) the opposite is by an intertwined single goal language interconnected to its three levels.

A. PPP Software in several language targets

Within the presentation stage, language goal is stimulated by demonstration methods adopted by a instructor’s discretion. The scholars are anticipated to look at how new languages are generated from a instructor’s diverse manner of presenting. It’s a reality that it’s not appropriate to feed college students straight what their new classes are. In right here, it’s favorable to listen to instructor say, “We now have a brand new grammar lesson immediately that connects to your favourite sports gamers world wide”. “Are you able to inform me the names of your favourite gamers?” quite than saying, “We are going to find out about frequent nouns and correct nouns.” “Your favourite sports gamers are literally correct nouns.” Presentation ought to incorporate discovery technique which can happen by the introduction of duties related by supporting supplies akin to footage, timeline, actual objects, cited conditions, a movie clip relying on lecturers’ discretion. On the finish of this stage, the scholars will pay attention to the goal language, its preliminary guidelines and buildings, which they themselves have inferred.

Secondly, observe stage is finished after the scholars have found the language‘s options. Primarily based from a instructor -prepared actions, they apply the foundations and buildings. Presuming that our classes are on singular and plural nouns, we will evaluation these to spotlight what they’ve realized within the presentation by having them cite nouns that they see within the second image and have them record all of the phrases in two columns based on names of issues and individuals. The scholars could also be tasked to determine every phrase which is singular and plural from the 2 authentic columns that they’ve constructed enabling them to supply two extra columns: singular and plural nouns for folks, singular and plural nouns for locations, as facilitated. Collectively, in every column, the category transforms the phrases into singular or plural varieties. Relying upon the provision of time, the instructor can additional introduce some exceptions to the final guidelines on the completely different pluralization of nouns. Most likely, the instructor supplies an exercise that demonstrates some nouns whose plural varieties aren’t ending in ‘-s’ or ‘-es.’ As an illustration: child- children, cactus-cacti, radius-radii, memorandum-memoranda, woman-women, man-men, mouse-mice, goose-geese. Moreover, the instructor could function some uncountable nouns akin to: milk, sugar, cheese, salt, tea, espresso, bread and lots of different examples.

Manufacturing is a stage the place college students’ prior grammar data together with acquired data from the 2 levels are included beneath given duties to show an over-all studying end result. It’s endorsed that the manufacturing actions ought to relate to actuality for communicative functions. Assuming that the goal language is the current steady with future meanings, the instructor could ask the scholars on what they will do that afternoon to be answered in full sentences. The anticipated responses can be an software of the language‘s earlier launched method, which is current be-verb + a verb within the -ing kind + future time. At this level, the scholars are anticipated to supply an instance by being particular about be- verbs. It’s on this scenario that the scholars are made to decide between ‘is,’ ‘are,’ and ‘am’ though typically, they have been utilizing ‘is’ or ‘are’ within the observe stage. Moreover, because the query is about them individually, they must resolve which topic they will make use of. So as to add, they may also must resolve which a part of speech they will use. And since, ‘I’ have been determined, they’re conscious that pronoun goes for use particularly the topic pronouns, as a substitute of selecting up a topic from nouns. In conjunction to those stimulating exercise, college students’ cognitive means steady to work importantly. Due to this fact, the anticipated outputs can be sentences which can be launched by “I’m” For instance, “I’m assembly my good friend this afternoon,” “I’m touring to Islamabad tonight.” Just like different language focuses, the scholars are inspired to control the language expressions for no matter goal they might actually serve by way of the combination of the goal language‘s varieties and guidelines strengthened by their prior data which possibly added with new associated language to be processed when follow-up actions akin to homework and different types of enrichment workouts are supplied.

B. PPP software in an intertwined single lesson

Probably the most sensible technique to perceive PPP is to understand it in its three intertwined levels by way of an express lesson that showcases a single language focus together with its corresponding actions to be demonstrated in ascending method. Beneath is an instance of its software.

PPP can be elucidated by way of an interactive dialogue between a instructor and college students with responses as upshots from the given duties adopted by commentaries that function some sensible studying processes’ significance which conceivably suggest some supportive measures in trying to realize an operative employment of this technique.

The lesson

The goal language is “used to” and the instructor is conscious that the category has already realized some grammatical factors akin to topic pronouns, subject-verb settlement and previous easy verb varieties in help to the brand new lesson which signifies that in an institutional language course define, the teachings are sequenced appropriately based on the educational wants of scholars.


On the finish of a 50-minute session, the scholars are anticipated to:

1. decide the usage of the expression “used to”,

2. use ‘used to’ to remodel sentences that are expressed within the easy previous,

3. make use of ‘used to’ in sharing their earlier out-of-school actions,

4. write a paragraph relating to their experiences utilizing the expression, and

5. improve college students” grammatical means and creativity by way of expressing concepts previously in another way.


Goals present very substantial roles in each lesson. Although we can not cowl all of the meant outcomes in a single lesson, the targets ought to cater to a particular kind of lesson by involving the three domains of objectives- cognitive, psychomotor and affective. Particularly, “decide,” ‘use,’ ‘make use of’ are indicators of cognitive targets. ‘Write’ represents psychomotor and cognitive whereas ‘improve’ signify affective. All these said targets are anticipated to be attained in making use of the strategy involving, “used to” in a category’ featured sequence of actions. These particular targets develop into college students’ efficiency indicators on the finish of the instructing course of.

Stage 1: Presentation

Trainer: Each one in all it’s essential to have loved your childhood just like Munawar’s experiences when he was a schoolboy in Lahore. Hear, to a few of his unforgettable actions that he used to do on the age of ten in Pakistan.

college students’ solutions:

climbed apple bushes

went looking together with his father

performed cricket with buddies

learn storybooks on the library

picked fruits throughout harvest time

helped his dad and mom within the farm

prayed collectively together with his father on the mosque

Trainer: All of your solutions are displayed on the board. Do you observe one thing on the finish of each response?

Pupil: There isn’t a punctuation. I imply, there isn’t any full cease.

Trainer: Sure, what else do you see? See all the start phrases of those solutions.

Pupil: They don’t seem to be capitalized.

Trainer: Proper. Why aren’t they capitalized and punctuated?

Pupil: We solely capitalize and punctuate them when they’re sentences.

Trainer: Am I made to know that these responses are usually not sentences?

Pupil: Sure.


Even when the teachings are usually not on punctuation and capitalization, these important factors that popped up must be processed. Additionally it is on this setting when college students are given the prospect to find out the variations between a phrase and a sentence. These add to their primary data which can information them in language acquisition abilities. It’s a instructor’s duty to combine these necessary factors since these are pure instructing occurrences that surfaced at present in the midst of a instructing course of. The instructor ought to by no means presume that the category knew about these related factors for there might be extra college students ready to soak up the precise rudiments by way of a instructor’s elaboration. One pupil’s doubt which was by no means raised for some causes may reply many college students’ hesitations beneath these circumstances.

Trainer: Let’s get again once more to what you’ve gotten listened to about Munawar’s childhood actions. What did he do? Let’s change Munawar into one other kind. What ought to we use to characterize Munawar? Return to the topic pronouns and select appropriately the phrase that we’re going to use as a topic.

Pupil: “He” needs to be used.

Trainer: That is proper. Why do you suppose it’s “he?”

College students: Munawar is singular and he is a male.

Trainer: Precisely. This time, will I capitalize and punctuate utilizing a full cease? Why ought to I capitalize and punctuate?

College students: Sure. We now have made sentences. Because of this, we have to capitalize the start phrases and place a full cease on the finish of each assertion.

college students’ solutions.

He climbed apple bushes.

He went looking together with his father

He performed cricket with buddies.

He watched TV together with his household earlier than going to sleep.

He picked fruits throughout harvest time.

He helped his dad and mom within the farm.

He prayed collectively together with his father on the mosque.

Trainer: What do you discover in every verb from the sentences?

College students: They’re all written previously kind?

Trainer: What made you say so?

Pupil: The verbs finish in- ed.

Trainer Why ought to we place -ed on the finish of each verb?

College students: They occurred when he was a toddler. These motion phrases have been accomplished previously.

Trainer: Additionally, you’ll discover that one previous easy verb is of various kind.

What is that this phrase? Recall your earlier lesson in regards to the varieties of verbs.

College students: It is an irregular verb.

Trainer: Can we settle for this verb?

Pupil: Sure.

Trainer: Why?

Pupil: It additionally expresses previous easy.

Trainer: Are you able to give extra examples of those irregular verbs?

college students’ solutions on irregular verbs

inform -told



really feel -felt


develop into -became

say -said

come- got here

tear- tore




Trainer: Okay. Can we presumably write these sentences in one other manner?

What about inserting ‘used to’ earlier than the verb in each sentence that we have now made?

College students: Sure, we will.

Trainer: You might be appropriate. Write your new sentence beside every sentence. Add ‘used to’ earlier than the verbs however the principle verbs needs to be turned into the current easy.

College students’ solutions

He climbed apple bushes. He used to climb apple bushes

He went looking together with his father. He used to go looking together with his father.

He performed cricket with buddies. He used to play cricket with buddies.

He watched TV together with his household earlier than going to sleep. He used to observe TV together with his household earlier than going to sleep.

He picked fruits throughout harvest time. He used to select fruits throughout harvest time.

He helped his dad and mom within the farm. He used to assist his dad and mom within the farm.

He prayed collectively together with his father on the mosque. He used to hope collectively together with his father on the mosque.

Trainer: Taking a look at your second group of solutions, do you see how every sentence in each quantity differ from the primary group based on verb varieties?

College students: Sure, the primary group made has previous easy whereas the opposite was turned into current easy kind.

Trainer: What made the adjustments of the previous easy verbs in your second sentences?

College students: “Used to” made the adjustments within the verbs into current easy.

Trainer: Everyone knows that the verbs within the first group of sentences are previously kind, and this implies all of them have been accomplished previously. Once we made one other group of sentences, we added ‘used to’ however we have now written all of the verbs into easy current kind. Have we accomplished these adjustments appropriately?

College students: Sure, we have now. Once we positioned ‘used to’, we’re equally rewriting the concepts previously kind in one other manner.

Trainer: Now, are they the identical when it comes to tense? Do the pairs have the identical meanings?

College students: Sure, they do.

Trainer: Apart from utilizing the easy previous kind to precise accomplished actions previously, what else can we use?

College students: We are able to write “used to + the bottom type of the verb.”

Trainer: Sure, it’s correct to make use of ‘used to + the bottom type of the verb’ to precise actions that occurred previously.


The salient factors to be noticed in listed here are the utilization of earlier data of the language, shut linkage of targets to focus on language, interconnections of targets in all actions with the inclusion of motivation. The presentation needs to be inductive for the scholars to deduce as a substitute of using the deductive technique. In utilizing the inductive technique, college students could have the chance to determine what language is to be realized and the way do their buildings to swimsuit a particular rule or a normal rule which they’ll quickly uncover. Additionally, software of prior language might be related as demonstrated by the substitution of topics. Prior data utilization is a type of refreshing them relating to the significance of beforehand realized languages. In right here, they got the chance to determine the order of the expressions in language constructions. So as to add, this stage directed learners to kind a method of their very own which is able to information them to carry out sequence of workouts by levels.

There are some exceptions to the formation of previous tense for irregular verbs. If it comes out, it’s best to course of its salient factors in preparation for the observe and manufacturing. This needs to be strengthened by including extra actions within the presentation.

Stage 2: Follow

Trainer: Let’s have extra workouts to additional perceive the lesson. Here’s a record of what a movie director did when he filmed a film in Quetta. Write them in full sentences utilizing the previous easy kind and adjusted every by including ‘Use to.’

booked his crew in a lodge

talked to the mayor of the city

employed some additional cameramen

gathered different residents to behave as bit gamers

organized the actors schedules

gave time for performers to learn their scripts

threw a celebration earlier than going again house

College students’ solutions

He booked his crew in a lodge. He used to book his crew in a lodge

He talked to the mayor of the city. He used to speak to the mayor of the city.

He employed some additional cameramen. He used to rent some additional cameramen.

He gathered different residents to behave as bit gamers. He used to collect different residents to behave as bit gamers.

He organized the actors’ schedules. He used to arrange the actors’ schedules.

He gave time for performers to learn their scripts. He used to offer time for performers to learn their scripts.

He threw a celebration earlier than going again house. He used to throw a celebration earlier than going again house.


It’s pertinent that the instructor stimulates the pondering of the scholars after the reworked examples as reinforcement of the presentation stage. Repetition is a type of reinforcement and a type of significant train because the college students’ are made to suppose whereas they carry out. After the actions, elaboration of the rudiments of this language focus is of excessive significance.

When “used to” is used, the unique verb kind from as easy previous must be in a easy current. It’s advisable to have the scholars uncover the adjustments. Their inference can be a terrific support in retaining data. The instructor’s position is simply to set off their means to deduce relating to the verb construction. At this juncture, a instructor is discouraged to feed ideas on to the scholars.

In actual communication practices, these two expressions: previous easy and ‘used to’ could also be blended up. It’s best to emphasise that it’s doable to happen. Each pupil needs to be conscious that what they realized within the classroom are fashions and that they are often modified in a pure communication whether or not they’re used orally or in written method.

Stage 3: Manufacturing

Trainer: What about you, can you continue to recall your previous actions years in the past? Collectively along with your seatmate, record what each of you used to do. Write them in a easy previous verb and be capable of rework these sentences utilizing ‘used to.’ You should have three varieties of lists. Each college students will ship a chat in regards to the duties that they’ve accomplished. Assist one another in forming the lists.

doable college students’ record one (1) no topic with easy previous

watched our favourite TV present day-after-day

performed soccer within the area

visited my buddies twice

had picnics on the household park

went to Dammam each week

toured Bahrain as soon as a month

travelled to Riyadh Metropolis with our cousins.

doable college students’ record two (2) pluralized topic with easy previous

We watched our favourite TV present day-after-day.

We performed soccer within the area.

We visited my buddies twice.

We had picnics on the household park.

We went to Dammam each week.

We toured Bahrain as soon as a month.

We travelled to Riyadh Metropolis with our cousins.

doable college students’ record three (3) – pluralized topic with expression ‘used to’ changing easy previous.

We used to observe our favourite TV present day-after-day.

We used to play soccer within the area.

We used to go to my buddies twice.

We used to have picnics on the household park.

We used to go to Dammam each week.

We used to tour Bahrain as soon as a month.

We used to journey to Riyadh Metropolis with our cousins

Trainer: Get again to record primary and share your concepts.

College students: Record primary is launched by easy verbs.

Trainer: Sure, that is proper. What have you ever seen in record quantity two?

College students: There’s a specified topic in every sentence.

Trainer: Right. The phrases have been accomplished as sentences. Are record quantity three and quantity two the identical relating to tenses?

College students: Sure.

Trainer: Now, as a homework, make a timeline of 5 thrilling issues that you simply did final summer season by utilizing dates and previous easy verbs or ‘used to’. Write them in a paragraph kind by following the components of a paragraph that we have now practiced per week in the past.


College students have been in a position to kind the easy pasts independently, determined the topic for use and substituted the easy pasts into ‘used to’ by enumerating skilled actions. These suggest that college students studying within the cognitive manner is manifested within the manufacturing. Their means to control the language‘s buildings and guidelines by way of the duties denote their increasing degree of order pondering abilities stemming from the presentation and observe stage. It’s due to this fact inspired that lecturers could make the manufacturing stage operational by utilizing sequence of interlinked actions in contexts even when this explicit stage is just like how they intertwined their classes from the 2 earlier levels. Provision of those actions permits them extra alternatives to control at present realized language targets and to use previously realized language contents.

Homework is a form of manufacturing ensuing to outputs that reinforce or enrich what they’ve realized. Additionally it is really useful that language a newly realized focus have to be built-in with the introduction of a brand new focus akin to giving dates as time expressions. Date can point out previous actions and these are extra language expressions which they will work on in pure communication setting. Furthermore, encouraging manufacturing’s favorable results could proliferate amongst learners once they apply languages which can be anchored to their real-life experiences.

There aren’t any straightforward approaches to make use of in language instructing even when they appear to be. Lecturers must outline their learners and apply some changes. Approaches are usually not accomplished mechanically however quite flexibly based mostly from college students’ degree and from the readiness of sources. Classes’ targets needs to be realized within the instructing course of. Educating experiences reveal that inside a technique, a technique arises. Additionally it is related to do some reflections regrading targets that result in studying instructions. Do your actions relate with the targets? Are they launched by the enter materials? Are they confined in your required setting? Are these manifested beneath instructor and college students’ roles? Do they hook up with the goal language? Are they implied within the outputs? In the event that they do, then PPP might be a viable technique in your school rooms.

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